Diagnostics Tests

Amino Acid Panel

AMINO ACIDS IN FIRST-MORNING URINE
AMINO ACIDS IN PLASMA
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amino acid test
Clinical Information:

Amino Acids (AA) are the basic structural units of protein found in every tissue of the body. They are involved in the creation of neurotransmitters, hormones, enzymes, antibodies, collagen, hemoglobin, immunoglobulins, receptors, muscles, and energy production.

Amino acid analysis identifies dietary protein adequacy and amino acid balance, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, forms of protein intolerance, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, renal and hepatic dysfunction, psychiatric abnormalities, susceptibility to inflammatory response, reduced detoxification capacity, and many other inherent and acquired disorders in its metabolism.

In published studies, fasting plasma is the preferred test on amino acid analysis as it was evidenced with the greatest number of validation. It detects the essential amino acids insufficiency and also shows high levels of reliability in indicating chronic stresses. Plasma drawn from blood at any given time will reflect AA leaving sites such as in skeletal muscle and flowing into sites of utilization in liver, brain and other tissues. Amino acids in urine is most sensitive in determining amino acid wasting and metabolism deviation associated with co-factor insufficiencies. Urine levels of amino acids decrease first and tend to give an earlier indication of inadequacy than do plasma levels.

Clinical Use:

  • Nutritional assessment and identification of amino acid imbalance and deficiencies
  • Detection or diagnosis of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism (IEM) and transport
  • Diet monitoring of patients with IEM

Analytes Measured:

Quantitative measurement of 24 Essential, Non-essential and Metabolic Amino Acids

Essential Amino Acids (11) Histidine
Arginine
Tryptophan
Lysine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Phenylalanine
Threonine
Valine
Taurine
Methionine
Non-essential Amino Acids (10) Alanine
Asparagine
Aspartic Acid
Cysteine
Glutamine
Glycine
Glutamic Acid
Proline
Serine
Tyrosine
Metabolic Amino Acids (3) Beta alanine
GABA gamma-amino butyric acid
Phosphoserine

Specimen Needed:

  • For Urine Analysis: 20 ml first morning urine, collected midstream
  • For Plasma Analysis: 5 ml whole blood, yielding at least 2 ml plasma

Turn Around Time of Results: 7 Working days

Analytical Method: UPLC (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography)

References:
1 Quantitative amino acids analysis for the diagnosis and follow up of inborn errors of metabolism: Biochemical Genetics and Supplemental Newborn Screening, ARUP Laboratories http://www.arup.utah.edu/media/IEM/IFL%20Video%20lecture_20160815.pdf Retrieved: 6/29/2017
2 Lord and Bralley. Laboratory Evaluations for Integrative and Functional Medicine 2nd ed. 2012
3 Plasma and Urinary Amino Acid Metabolomic Profiling in Patients with Different Levels of Kidney Function. Duranton et al.
http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/content/9/1/37.full Retrieved: 6/29/2017